Wednesday, February 9, 2011

Accused No. 11: Bhagat Singh:


                      Accused No. 11: Bhagat Singh:
                 As proved in Lahore Conspiracy Case
Bhagat Singh was arrested in the Assembly Hall at Delhi on the 8th April, 1929, by Sergeant Terry (P.W.18) after he and Bhatkeshwar Dutt had thrown a bomb in that building.
The important feature of the evidence regarding Bhagat Singh is his ubiquity (Note- Exactly the same word had been used by judges of Tribunal earlier, in 1914-15, for Kartar Singh Sarabha-Ed) which may be taken to be in part a result of the fact that at the Delhi meeting of September, 1928 he was appointed to be a link between the various provinces. Thus he is found at Lahore, Rawalpindi, Ferozepur, Delhi, Jhansi, Agra, Allahabad, Bettiah and Calcutta and his presence in Amritsar is also mentioned by the approvers. He was arrested before the Saharanpur centre became important.
Both Jai Gopal and Hans Raj Vohra speak of meeting Bhagat Singh at the Lachhman Gali house in Gowalmandi Lahore, towards the end of 1927, but of this there is not direct corroboration. Mahabir Singh in his confession states that he first met Bhagat Singh at Ferozepur, in November, 1928, while Prem Dutt does not appear to have met him until the beginning of 1929. Phonindra Nath Ghosh and Man Mohan Bannerji first saw Bhagat Singh at the Delhi meeting in September, 1928, while Prem Dutt does not appear to have met him until the beginning of 1929. Phonindra Nath Ghosh and Man Mohan Bannerji first saw Bhagat Singh at the Delhi meeting in September, 1928, while Lalit Kumar Mukerjee met him at Allahabad in the same month.
When Jai Gopal went to Rawalpindi in January 1928 both he and Hans Raj vohra depose that Bhagat Singh accompanied him. Of this there is corroboration in the evidence of Head Constable Kharak Singh (P.W.139) who has identified Bhagat Singh at a magisterial parade and in Court as having stayed with Jai Gopal at the Hamilton Bazar house.
Jai Gopal has deposed that when living at Rawalpindi in the house in Nawan Mohalla, Bhagat Singh paid him a visit and gave him Rs.30/- and told him to stay at Rawalpindi until further order, but of this visit there is no corroboration.
Thus Bhagat Singh’s visit to Rawalpindi at the beginning of 1928 is proved but, owing to lack of corroboration, the second visit to that place is not satisfactorily proved.
According to Lalit Kumar Mukerjee, Bhagat Singh came to Allahabad in September, 1928, and again in January, 1929. The visit in January,1929 is corroborated by the evidence of Ragho Nath Mittra (P.W.352)
and should be taken as sufficiently proved.
Regarding Bhagat Singh’s presence at the Delhi meeting of September, 1928, and his appointment to the Central Committee on that occasion, there is the evidence of Phonindra Nath Ghosh and Man Mohan Bannerji corroborated in an important manner by the testimony of the Chaukidar of the Feroz Shah Tughlak Fort, Bara Singh (P.W.420), who spoke to Bhagat Singh at the time of the meeting and subsequently
identified him in the Court of the special magistrate as well as a magisterial parade. That this witness, being the Chaukidar of the Fort,should have been present on that particular occasion is a natural circumstance and there is no suspicion attaching to his evidence, which should be taken, when coupled with the evidence of two approvers, as fully proving Bhagat Singh’s presence at the Delhi meeting.
Bhagat Singh’s visits to Gya Parshad’s house at Ferozepur are proved by Jai Gopal’s evidence, corroborated by the confession of Mahabir Singh who also met him there, as well as by the confession of Gya Parshad and the evidence of one other witness, Diwan Chand (P.W.200) who picked out Bhagat Singh at magisterial parade and also in Court as having been seen by him at that house. It was during one of these visits shortly after the Delhi meeting of September, 1928, that Bhagat Singh had his hair and beard cut in accordance with a decision made at Delhi and on this particular matter the confession of Gya Parshad which mentions it is sufficient proof in corroboration of jai Gopal’s evidence on the point.
Next there was the visit of Bhagat Singh along with Panditji to Bettiah towards the end of September 1928 the object of which was to arrange a dacoity in Bihar and thus acquire funds for the party, another matter which had been discussed at Delhi. The particular journey proved abortive at that time no dacoity was arranged , but the presence of Bhagat Singh there on that occasion is proved by the evidence of
Phonindra Nath Ghosh and of Man Mohan Bannerji coupled with the corroborating testimony of Raghuni (P.W.17) who has satisfactorily identified Bhagat Singh and who was present when a meal was brought
for Bhagat Singh and his companions by Man Mohan Bannerjee from the latter’s house, the witness Raghuni being employed on that occasion by Man Mohan Bannerji to carry a lantern.
The next scene of action in which Bhagat Singh is proved to have participated is the projected raid on the Punjab National Bank at Lahore early in December and the visits of Bhagat Singh to the Mozang House
in Lahore at the same time. The evidence on these points is that of Jai Gopal and Hans Raj Vohra, coupled with the confession of Mahabir Singh which confession proves Bhagat Singh’s part in the Bank raid and is
admissible against Bhagat Singh under section 30 of the Indian Evidence Act. General corroboration of the truth of Mahabir Singh’s statement on these points is also provided by the taxi driver, Barkat Ali (P.W.87) and the tonga driver, Feroz Din (P.W.449) neither of whom however, could identify Bhagat Singh. Further, Bhagat Singh’s presence at the Mozang House in those days is proved by four witnesses who corroborate the approvers on this point, namely, Hussain Baksh (P.W.60), Bura (P.W.72), Budhu (P.W.73) and Fakir Chand (P.W.86) all of whom identified Bhagat Singh at magisterial parades and also in Court.

Bhagat Singh’s participation in the Saunders murder is the most serious and important fact proved against him and it is fully established by ample evidence. That he was present at the Mozang House, at the
meeting where the murder plot was elaborated, is proved by the evidence of Jai Gopal and by the confession of Mahabir Singh, while Hans Raj Vohra, mentions Bhagat Singh presence in the Mozang House on that
day. Jai Gopal also mentions that, on the 15th December, Bhagat Singh showed him at the Mozang house some pink posters headed “Scott is dead” and that Bhagat Singh and Panditji told him on that day about the
decision to murder Mr. Scott, while on the 17th December, the day of the murder at 11 A.M Hans Raj Vohra saw Bhagat Singh copying similar posters with his own hand and at Bhagat Singh’s request Hans Raj Vohra also copied three or four of them. The subsequent recovery of similar posters proved to be in Bhagat Singh’s handwriting, which will be mentioned below, containing the heading “Saunders is dead” proves the truth of Hans Raj Vohra’s statement on this point.
The evidence that Bhagat Singh took part in the Saunders murder is threefold in character. There is first the evidence of various eye witnesses who claim to have identified Bhagat Singh either as one of the men who committed the murder or as one of those who were retreating from the scene of murder soon after it had been committed.
Secondly, there is the evidence of two approvers, Jai Gopal and Hans Raj Vohra and especially that of Jai Gopal, who was himself a participator in the crime and whose presence at the scene of the crime has been well proved by other evidence already referred to when dealing with the general corroboration of Jai Gopal, and certain corroboration of the evidence of Jai Gopal that Mr. Saunders was actually shot at by Bhagat Singh which is furnished by the testimony of Mr. Robert Churchill (P.W.31), the gun expert of London, who proves that a cartridge case found near the spot had issued from the automatic pistol, Ex. P. 480 which was recovered from the possession of Bhagat Singh by Sergeant Terry (P.W.18) when he arrested Bhagat Singh on the 8th April, 1929, in the assembly Hall at Delhi.
Thirdly, there are the posters Exs. P.A.X., P.A.X./1,P.A.X/2, P.A.X/3, P.B.Q and P.B.S. all of which are proved by the handwriting expert Mr. Scott (P.W.423) to be in the handwriting of Bhagat Singh and the contents of which are tantamount to a confession on the part of Bhagat Singh of complicity in the murder of Mr. Saunders in the interests of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army. A further admission of Bhagat Singh regarding his participation in the Saunders murder is proved by the confession of Prem Dutt who mentions that in his presence probably in January, 1929 Bhagat Singh addressing Sukh Dev stated,” Do you remember how endeavors were made by us to hit the mark accurately but we used to miss it? When we went to kill Saunders the bullet struck his head (Note: Post Mortem Report does not support it, since there was no head injury on Saunder’s body. Refer annexure-7) and we thought that one of us would be arrested, but none was arrested”. This is quite a reliable piece of evidence. Another confession of Bhagat Singh is proved by Phonindra Nath Ghosh, Bhagat Singh having explained to him at Calcutta at the end of December, 1928, that he and his party had murdered Mr. Saunders and that Phonindra Nath Ghosh had not been asked to approve beforehand because he lived at a distance and also because Bhagat Singh had undertaken to take his consent.
Another alleged confession of Bhagat Singh to a fellow prisoner in the Mianwali Jail, Abdul Rehman Shah (P.W.451) is not regarded as reliable and has been excluded from consideration.
The professed eye witnesses of actual murder are Abdullah (P.W.34), Muhammad Ibrahim (P.W.36), Faqir Sayed Wahid-ud-Din (P.W.47), Chaudri Habib Ullaha (P.W.101), Kamal Din (P.W.102), Ganda Singh (P.W.180) and Mr. Fearn (P.W.46). Mr. Fearn did not identify either of the assailants and the evidence of Wahid-ud-Din and Ganda Singh is disregarded owing to the fact that neither of these witnesses was prompt
in giving information to the authorities about what has professed to have seen . Although the evidence of Muhammad Ibrahim, Constable, Habib Ullaha and Kamal Din is not in itself unconvincing, there are
certain discrepancies in the testimony of the other witnesses which give rise to some doubt whether these three men should be believed as measure of precaution their evidence also is disregarded.
The evidence of Abdullah (P.W.34) is however, satisfactory and reliable. He was the motor driver whose motor arrived, while the firing was going on at the corner of Court street near to the position which Jai
Gopal had taken up. He afterwards took the body of Mr. Saunders to the hospital in his car. He saw the attack upon Mr. Saunders and he has identified Bhagat Singh satisfactorily both at a magisterial parade and
also in Court as the taller of the two men who fired upon Mr. Saunders. This identification there is no reason to doubt.
There are also witnesses who saw the murderers on their way from the scene of action passing through the D.A.V. college ground and leaving those grounds at the further end. These witnesses are Som Nath (P.W.144) student, Abnash Chand (P.W.145) student, Aftab Ahmed (P.W.232) student, Ajmer Singh (P.W.181) student and Ata Muhammad (P.W.28), cycle merchant. Of these Som Nath saw the three murderers coming down the stair case from Block B of the D.A.V. College Hostel and noticed that one of them was armed with a pistol. He picked out satisfactorily Bhagat Singh as one of those three men at  a magisterial parade, but his identification of Bhagat Singh in the jail just before giving the evidence in this Court was not so successful. In the first instance he picked out another man but immediately corrected himself and picked out Bhagat Singh. His evidence should be regarded as good proof against Bhagat Singh. Abnash Chand (P.W.145) saw the three members near the Botanical Garden of the D.A.V. College, one of them appeared to him to be carrying a pistol. He picked out Bhagat Singh as one of those men successfully at a magisterial parade by his back which was the only part of man in question that he had seen on the
occasion referred to, but when he went to the Jail shortly before giving the evidence he was unable again to pick out Bhagat Singh. His evidence is not therefore, very effective against Bhagat Singh. Aftab Ahmed
(P.W.232) was near the volleyball ground of the D.A.V. College and saw two of the murderers pass by, one having a pistol. He satisfactorily picked out Bhagat Singh both at a magisterial parade and in Court as
the man who was carrying the pistol.
Ajmer Singh (P.W.181) is the student from whom an attempt was made to take a bicycle. He did not succeed in identifying Bhagat Singh as one of the party who accosted him. Ata Muhammad (P.W.48) is the
cycle merchant from whose shop a bicycle was actually taken but abandoned when the witness gave chase. He deposed that one of the three men who passed his shop stopped at a turning while other one
removed the bicycle from his shop. He has satisfactorily identified Bhagat Singh at a magisterial parade and also in Court as the man who stopped at the turning and his evidence is good proof against Bhagat Singh.
Thus of the witnesses named in this group Som Nath (P.W.144), Aftab Ahmed (P.W.232) and Ata uhammad (P.W. 48) provide good evidence of Bhagat Singh’s participation in the Saunders murder.
Coming now to the evidence of Mr. Robert Churchill, the Gun expert which has been mentioned above, the recovery of the pistol Ex. P. 480 from Bhagat Singh when arrested at Delhi on the 8th April 1929, is adequately proved by Sergeant Terry (P.W.18). In this connection it is explained by the evidence of Rai Bahadur Suraj Narain (P.W.379) that when Bhagat Singh was tried at Delhi for the throwing of a bomb in the assembly hall the pistol was intentionally not exhibited in the trial and there is no reason, therefore, doubt Sergeant Terry’s evidence on the score that Bhagat Singh’s possession of a pistol was not proved in that case. Ex. P. 864/1-1 is a bullet picked up by Muhammad Ibrahim (P.W.150) from the spot where the body of Mr. Saunders had been lying shortly after the murder and handed over by this witness to Inspector
Bawa Mani Ram (P.W.78). (The statement of Muhammad Ibrahim, P.W.150, that he handed the bullet over to the Inspector Kundan Lal is taken to be a mistake and the statement of inspector Bawa Mani Ram
P.W.78, that it was to him Muhammad Ibrahim P.W.150, had handed it over is taken as correct.) Inspector Bawa Mani Ram (P.W.78) handed it over to Head Constable Jagan Nath (P.W.105) who retained it until it
was taken to Mr. Churchill (P.W.31) in London by Mr. Jenkin Superintendent of Police (P.W.30). An empty cartridge case Ex. P. 864/1-B, was picked up by Sub Inspector Bahadur Ali (P.W.75) on the 19th December, 1928, together with other empty cartridge cases from near the spot where Mr. Saunders was shot down. Bahadur Ali handed it over to Inspector Bawa Mani Ram (P.W.78) who in turn handed it to Head Constable Jagan Nath (P.W.105). This was also retained by Jagan Nath until Mr. Jenkin took it to Mr. Churchill in London. The evidence of Mr. Churchill regarding these two exhibits as well as other exhibits examined by him is detailed and convincing and was supported by an ocular demonstration in Court to the Tribunal with the help of micro photographs and a pair of microscopes with one single eyepiece, in which eye piece half of each of two bullets to be compared could be simultaneously, showing whether or not they had been fired from the same weapon by relating the lines found on one bullet to those on the other. The comparison of Ex. P. 864/1-I made with a test bullet which was proved by the evidence of Mr. Jenkin (P.W.30)
and a Magistrate, Mr. Lewis (P.W.264) to have been fired from the pistol Ex. P. 480. Similarly an examination in the same manner of marks on the empty cartridge case, Ex. P/864/1-B with marks on a test cartridge case proved by the same witness to have been fired from the same pistol was also made by means of micro photographs and the pair of microscopes with a single eyepiece. The comparison proved conclusively to the expert and to this Court that the bullet, Ex. P. 864/1-I and the empty cartridge case Ex. P. 864/1-B, had been fired from the automatic pistol, Ex. P. 480. Had the pistol been recovered from Bhagat Singh immediately after the murder this piece of evidence would have proved by itself that he fired on Mr. Saunders. As it was recovered from Bhagat Singh nearly four months after, it cannot be said to amount to more that corroborative evidence of the statement of Jai Gopal but as corroborative evidence it has a very high value.
Coming now to the various confessions mentioned above, those which were made to Prem Dutt and to Phonindra Nath Ghosh are both important, but the most important of all is the evidence of the pink
posters. The finding of the posters Exs. P.A. X. P.A.X./1. P.A.X/2. And P.A.X./3 affixed in different public places of Lahore within a few days of the Saunders murder is proved by Khan Sahib Sheikh Muhammad Sadiq. (P.W.81) Sub Inspector Amar Nath (P.W.82) and Rahmat Khan Constable (P.W.83) but it is really immaterial where these posters were found inasmuch as wherever found they are proved by the evidence of Mr. Scott (P.W.423) to be in the handwriting of Bhagat Singh and having regard to the fact that the name of the murdered man is given as Saunders and not as Scott, it is highly improbable that they could have
been written by Bhagat Singh before the murder. Mr. Scott’s evidence deals with Exs. PA.X. P.A.X/1 P.A.X/2. and P.A.X/3 about which evidence is forthcoming as to where they were found and also with Exs. P.B.O
and P.B.S. about which there is no such evidence on the record. In the case of Bhagat Singh Mr. Scott had ample material on the basis of which to work in the shape of documents proved beyond doubt to be in Bhagat Singh’s handwriting , namely the documents Exs. P.C.B. P.D.C., P.F.Y., P.F.Z. P.F.X. and P.G.B/1. His evidence is detailed and convincing and was assisted by an examination, which the Court itself could make,
of juxtaposed photographs containing letters and words from the proved documents juxtaposed with letters and words from the posters. This evidence proves beyond all reasonable doubt that these poster were written by Bhagat Singh and a perusal of them shows that the writer must have been privy to the murder of Mr. Saunders. The witnesses, by whose evidence those documents are proved on the basis of which Mr.
Scott made his comparison are Chaudri Ghulam Rasul (P.W.152), Sheik Bashir Ahmed (P.W.153), Inspector Karam Singh (P.W.154), Zawwar Hussain (P.W.155), Sahibzade Mriza Aitzaz ud-Din ahmed khan, Superintendent of Police (P.W.165), Sheikh Murid Akbar (P.W.247) and Sub Inspector Charan Singh (P.W.313).
Taking all the above evidence together, it is conclusively proved that Bhagat Singh took part in the murder of Mr. Saunders and actually fired at him with the pistol, Ex. P. 480.
After the murder Bhagat Singh went to the Mozang House and on the 20th December, 1928 he left Lahore for Cawnpore traveling second class while Shivram Rajguru traveled as his servant. Both Jai Gopal and Hans Raj Vohra have mentioned this fact, Jai Gopal having been told by Sukh Dev about the end of March, 1929. The evidence is admissible against Bhagat Singh and Shivram Rajguru and it is well corroborated by the testimony of four Railway officials, Ram Sran Dass, (P.W.114), Hari Chand (P.W.115), Niaz-ud-Din P.W.116) and Tej Singh (P.W.117) who prove that on the 20th December, 1928, one second class ticket only from Lahore to Cawnpore and one servant ticket only were issued at Lahore and that similar tickets issued at Lahore were collected at Cawnpore on the following day on the arrival of the 14 Down express from Lahore. This journey is, therefore, adequately proved.
At the end of December, 1928 and in January 1929 Bhagat Singh was in Calcutta and was meeting Phonindra Nath Ghosh and J.N. Dass in connection with a proposal that J.N. Dass should come north and
teach the members of the party bomb making. In January also a beginning was made in the quarters of Kanwal Nath Tiwari at Calcutta of the manufacture of guncotton for use in bombs and in this also Bhagat
Singh assisted. The evidence by which these facts are proved is that of Phonindra Nath Ghosh corroborated by the statements of Balaio Lal Ghosh (P.W.391) and Chander Shekhar Ghosh (P.W.392), both of whom
saw Bhagat Singh in the company of Phonindra Nath Ghosh at Calcutta in those days and both of whom have satisfactorily identified Bhagat Singh at magisterial parades and also at the jail shortly before giving
their evidence in this Court. While in corroboration of Phonindra Nath Ghosh evidence about the making of gun cotton at the quarters in Cornwallis Street there is the important witness Tulsi Ram (P.W.397),
the Jamadar of the Arya Samaj Mandir where Kanwal Nath Tiwari was living, who actually entered the room of Kawal Nath Tiwari on one occasion when both Phonindra Nath Ghosh and Bhagat Singh were there
who satisfactorily identified both of them at magisterial parades in addition to identifying Phonindra Nath Ghosh in Court and Bhagat Singh at the Jail shortly before he gave his evidence in this Court. These
activities of Bhagat Singh are thus adequately proved.
From Calcutta Bhagat Singh probably went to Agra and was at Agra, at any rate, in February, 1929, when bomb making began at the Hing Ki Mandi House and when on the 16th December the party left for Cawnpore to rescue Yogesh Chander of which party Bhagat Singh was a member. It was at Agra also that the decision to throw a bomb in the Assembly Hall was made by the Central Committee at a meeting which Bhagat Singh attended. The proof of Bhagat Singh’s presence at Agra and his participation in the above mentioned affairs is contained in the evidence of Phonindra Nath Ghosh and Lalit Kumar Mukerjee who had been sent for by Bhagat Singh from Allahabad to take part in the bomb making, while regarding the journey of rescue party to Cawnpore there is the corroborating evidence of Railway officials already referred to in discussing the case of Sheo Verma and, finally in regard to Bhagat Singh’s presence in those days at the Hing Ki Mandi House there is the evidence of Abdul Aziz Beg (P.W.239), Muhammad Irshad Ali Khan (P.W.240) and of Thakar Ram Singh (P.W.371), all three of whom identified Bhagat Singh at a magisterial parade and also in Court . The evidence of both the approvers regarding these activities is in itself of a convincing character and the above mentioned corroborative evidence which is available coupled with their evidence furnishes proof of Bhagat Singh’s participation in those events. His visit to Jhansi in March 1929 is an off shoot of the Agra proceedings, the journey having been made from Agra at having been made in order to test one of the
bombs that had been manufactured at Agra. In this Jhansi visit Bhagat Singh joined. The proof of Bhagat Singh’s connection with that journey and with the experiment of exploding a bomb at lonely spot twenty two
miles from Jhansi is contained in the evidence of Phonindra Nath Ghosh who also took part in that journey and in the experiment which was its object and whose evidence on the point is very well corroborated. Such
corroboration is to be found in the first place in the evidence of railway officials Rameshwar Dyal (P.W.268), Prabhu Dyal (P.W.269), Bijoy Singh (P.W.275), Sindohan Parshad (P.W.276), and Gobind Rao (P.W.277) who prove that four third class tickets only were issued from Agra to Jhansi on the 5th march 1929, and only two third class Jhansi to Raja Ki Mandi near Agra on the 6th march 1929 and that on one of these two third class tickets a bicycle was booked at Jhansi and taken delivery at Raja Ki Mandi. It is inconceivable that Phonindra Nath Ghosh when he first made his statement to a magistrate should have known that corroboration of this character concerning these two journeys and concerning the booking of a bicycle on the return journey would be available from the documents in possession of the Railway authorities and this evidence, therefore, provides a very valuable guarantee of the truth of his testimony. Apart from this there is also corroborative
evidence of the visit of Bhagat Singh to Jhansi in the statement of Ram Dulare (P.W.288), Shiv Raj P.W.289) and Rama Nand (P.W.290) the taxi driver who drove the party to the scene where the bomb was exploded. All these three men satisfactorily identified Bhagat Singh at magisterial parades and also either in Court or at the Jail shortly before giving their evidence in this Court.
There remains the presence of Bhagat Singh at Delhi in March and April 1929, up to the 8th April 1929, when he and B.K. Dutt threw a bomb in the Assembly Hall. The plan to throw the bomb was known to Phonindra Nath Ghosh and is mentioned in his evidence. It is also proved that Bhagat Singh travelled from Agra on the 7th March 1929 and arrived at Delhi on the 8th March taking with him a bicycle. On this point the evidence of the two railway officials Gobind Rao (P.W.277) and Sham Manohar Lal (P.W.280) is supported by a document Ex. P.D.P., which is Risk Note signed by Bhagat Singh with the signature “Ram Kishan” when he took delivery of the bicycle at Delhi. The signature on this document is satisfactorily proved by the andwriting expert Mr. Scott (P.W.423) to have been made by Bhagat Singh and this journey of Bhagat Singh is thus clearly proved. The presence of Bhagat Singh at Mussamat Mukandi’s house in Delhi is also proved by the evidence of Mst. Mukandi (P.W.169), Ram Sran Das (P.W.172) and Nur Muhammad (P.W.174) all of whom identified Bhagat Singh at magisterial parades and also in Court. The same remark would apply to Banwari Lal (P.W.170) and Harnam Singh (P.W.171) but these two men are not regarded as reliable witnesses. Finally, the arrest of Bhagat Singh at the Assembly Hall, on the 8th April is fully proved by Sergeant Terry (P.W.18) and Sub Inspector Hans Raj (P.W.20). Regarding Bhagat Singh’s intention to throw
a bomb in Assembly Hall the letter Ex.P.137, which he wrote to Sukh Dev and which was found in Kashmir Building, Lahore though it does not definitely mention such an intention gives an indication that Bhagat
Singh had an intention of that character and that he had already discussed it with Sukh Dev. That this document is in the handwriting of Bhagat Singh, is convincingly proved by the careful evidence of Mr.
Scott by means of juxtaposed photographs and detailed examination of the letter and words and form of writing. In the case of Bhagat Singh, Mr. Scott had ample proved material upon which to work and his evidence of the subject is very convincing.
Another document proved by Mr. Scott (P.W.423) is the document,Ex. P.A.K./7 which was found in the Saharnpur house when it was raided on 13th May 1929. This document is a rough list of books. The evidence
that proves its recovery is that of Sher Ali (P.W.228) and Khan Sahib Rehman Baksh Qadri (P.W.204). Though Bhagat Singh never went to Saharnpur house, the finding of this document on that place proves a
connection between Bhagat Singh and three men who were arrested there.
To sum up, Bhagat Singh was a leader of the revolutionary party which was formed at Delhi in September 1928, and had already taken part in revolutionary activities before that party was formed. He was  the active member of the Punjab branch of which Sukh Dev was organizing member and from the time of the Delhi meeting Bhagat Singh was selected as a link between the various provinces and in this capacity was constantly traveling from place to place between the Punjab and Calcutta. As a member of the Central Committee he also took part in important deliberations and plans of the party and was generally found participating in the active side of the movement. He took part in the project to raid the Punjab National Bank in Lahore, he was a protagonist in the murder of Mr. Saunders and it was he who entered into negotiations that J.N.Dass should teach bomb making to the members of the party; he actually took part in the bomb making at Agra, in the rescue party of Jogesh Chander Chatterji and in the journey to Jhansi to test a bomb and, finally, he was selected to throw bomb in the Assembly Hall, Delhi, in April 1929. 

(With thanks from book "The Hanging of Bhagat Singh - Complete judgment, and other Documents"  edited by Prof. Malwinderjit Singh Waraich and Dr. Gurdev Singh Sidhu, published by Unistar Books Pvt. Ltd, S.C.O 26-27, Sector 34 A Chandigarh, Total pages 244)

2 comments:

  1. We love Bhagat Singh
    He is Our First freedom Fighters Of all Others

    ReplyDelete
  2. We love Bhagat Singh
    He is Our First freedom Fighters Of all Others

    ReplyDelete